The Q nonimmigrant visa is for international cultural exchange programs designated by USCIS.
The other exchange visitor visa, J-1, described above is for educational and cultural exchange programs designated by the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs.

You may be eligible for a Q-1 nonimmigrant visa if you are seeking to participate in an international cultural exchange program. The Q nonimmigrant exchange program is for the purpose of providing practical training and employment, and to share the history, culture, and traditions of your home country with the United States.

The Q Visa is an employment oriented program but the integral part of your duties must have a cultural element. Generally a Q-Visa is issued for 15 months and an individual is required to spend at least 1 year outside US before he can apply for participation in Q cultural exchange program again.