By AMBIKA HANCHATE (INDIA)

Today   there  is a  broad – based  consensus  that  the  U.S immigration  system  is  broken.  This  consensus  erodes,  however,  as  soon as  the  options  to  reform  the U.S  immigration  system  are  debated.  Substantial  efforts  to  comprehensively  reform  immigration  law  failed  in  the  109th  and  110th  congress.  Whether  and  how  the  112th  congress  will  address  immigration  reform  in  the  midst  of  historically  high  levels  of  unemployment   and  budgetary  constrictions  is  difficult  to  project.  Because U.S has suffered immigration issues like:-

Illegal immigration: – how many, costs, crime, public health, social security, employment.etc…

Legal  immigration ;- how many, legislative  options,  naturalization,  chain immigration,  dual  nationality,  public  charge  exclusion, entry  paths (family, employer,  residents,  refugee, lottery  family  sponsored immigrants etc…

National security :- entry –exit  record,  policy  recommendations,  visa  waiver program, NAFTA highway north  American  union.

Labor and economics’; – job displacement, labor market, economy, welfare, wages in agriculture, costs, free trade agreements.

Guest workers: – temporary visa types, high tech, agricultural workers, unskilled, company transfers.

Population environment: – population growth, sprawl, traffic, fresh  water  resources.

Societal  issues ;- assimilation,  poverty,  schools,  hate crimes,  hit  and runs,  brain drain, non – citizen voting,  opinion  polls.  Etc…

These  all  are  the  above  issues / problems  faced  U.S. so  today  reforms  is  must  for  that. Let I will tell you brief as per below…..

Immigration reform :-  in  the  U.S  is  a  term  used  in  political  discussion  regarding  changes  to  current  immigration  policy  of a country.  In its strict definition, “REFORM” means to change in to an  improved  from / conditions.  By amending/ removing faults/ abuses.  In  the  political  sense,  immigration  reform  may  include  promoted,  expanded  / open immigration, as  well as  reduced / eliminated  immigration.  This  term  is  also  widely  used to  describe  proposals  to  increase  legal  immigration  while  decreasing  illegal  immigration, such  as  the  guest  worker  proposal supported  by George w. bush. Illegal immigration is a controversial issue in the U.S.  Proponents  of  greater  immigration  enforcement  argue  that  illegal  immigrants  costs  tax  payers  an estimated  $338.3  billion  dollars   &  jeopardize   the  safety  of  enforcement  official  and  citizens,  especially  along  the  Mexican  border.

In  2006,  the  U.S  house  of  representatives  passed  the  border  protection,  anti – terrorism,  and  illegal immigration  control  act  2005,  and  in  2006  the  U.S  senate  passed  the  comprehensive  immigration  reform  act  2006.  Neither  bill  became  law  because  their  differences  could  not  be  reconciled  in  conference  committee.  The  legislative  negotiations  and  national  activism  behind  immigration reform  from  2001 – 2007  is  the  subject  of  12 – part  documentary  film  series  how  democracy  works  now. In  2009  the  immigration  reform  became  a  hot topic, since  the  BARACK OBAMA a administration  recently  signaled  interest  in  beginning  a  discussion  on  comprehensive  immigration   reform  before  year’s  end.  The  proposed  comprehensive  immigration  reform  plan  had as  its goal  bipartisan  support  and includes  six sections  designed  to  have “something  for  everyone”  these  six  sections  are :-

a)  To fix border enforcement

b)  Interior enforcement, such as preventing visa overstays.

c)  Preventing people from working without a work permit.

d)  creating  a  committee  to  adapt  the  number  of  visas  available  to  changing  economic  times.

e) An ‘amnesty’ type of program to legalize document immigrants.

f) Programs to help immigrants adjust to life in the U.S

In  2010,  academic study  has  shown  that  when  immigration  issues receive  national  media  attention,  established  residents  living  in  places  that  have  seen  influx  of  new  immigrants  suddenly  become  much more  politicized  against  immigration.  This  suggest  that  it  is  not  the  influx  of  new  residents/ new  proximity  to  established  residents  that  stir  anti – immigrants,  sentiments,  rather,  resentment  is spurred  by  the  healed  and  prominent  nature  of  the  debate  itself.  The study,  done  by George town  university  and  published  it like “ examined  more  than  12  different  surveys  relating  to immigration,  anti – immigration  attitudes  among  established  resident  in  fast – changing  countries  increases by  9.9%  the  study  authors  states  that  ethnic  and  racial  surroundings  appear  to  affect  American’s  political  attitudes  for  less than  previously  thought. “those  who live  near  larger proportions  of  immigrants  do  nIot  consistently   exhibit,  more  negative  attitudes.  “rather, the  author  concludes’ day  to  day  encounters  can  be  shaped  by  silent  national  issues.

So  the  federal  government  employs  an  enforcement  heavy  approach  to  immigration  control.  More  than  20,000 U.S border  patrol  agents  are  operate  along  the  borders,  and  the  obama  administration  has  also  conduct  a  series  of  nationwide   immigration  sweeps  to  arrest  undocumented  criminal  offenders  and  increased  audits of  companies  hiring  unauthorized  workers.  And  the administration  has  also  expanded  the  secure, communities  programs,  started in 2008,  against  illegal  immigration.  And now a day’s also US taking /doing working on this issue.

Reforming  legal  immigration :-  reforming  the  cumbersome  visa and  citizenship  process  for  immigrants  particularly  skilled  foreign  workers  in  high – demand  STEM (science, technology, engineering,  math’s)  fields  is  priority  to  ensure  that  the  country  retains  its  competition’s in  the  global  economy,  say  some  experts  and  politicians, who  are  concerned  about  the  prospect  of  a  “reverse  brain  drain”  within  congress,  several  proposal  have  been  made  to improve  this  process  including  the  bipartisan  start  up  Act  20  which  would  introduce  a :start  up visa”  for  foreign  entrepreneurs  who  demonstrate  all  intent  to  create business  and  jobs  in  the  U.S well  as eliminate  individual   country  visa  quotas  and  offer a new type  of  visa to  foreign  students  graduating  in STEM  fields  in  US universities.

Guest  worker  programs  for  unskilled  workers  particularly  in  the  agricultural  sector  have  also  been  the  subject  of  heated  debate.  Critics  of  the  existing  H – 2A program,  which  grants  temporary  visas  for  seasonal  agricultural  work,  say  it  is  too  costly  and  inflexible  for  farmers  and has  not  sufficiently  curbed  illegal  immigration.  So the agricultural all job   opportunities, benefits and security (AgJOBS) Act, a  bill  that  modifies  the H – 2A  program  and  allows  undocumented  agricultural  workers  to  apply  for  green  card  under  certain  conditions,  and  also  over  the  past  decade,  the  DREAM Act  would  provide  a pathway  to  citizenship  for  undocumented  youth who  immigrated  as  children  with  their  families  to  the U.S  in  April  2012, republican  senator  Marco  Rubio  proposed  a  version  of  the  act  that  would  grant  a  temporary ,  renewable  “non – immigrant” visa  to  undocumented  youth  who  fit  DREAM Act  criteria,  rather  than green  card.  In June 2012, president  obama  announced  that  the  federal  government  would  no  longer  deport  undocumented  youths  who  immigrated  to  the  U.S  before  the  age  of  16  and  are  younger  than  30,  have  been in  the  country  for  five  continuous  years,  and  have  no  criminal history, under  the  new  policy,  these  immigrants  would  be  eligible  for  two  year  work  permits  that  have  no limits  on how  many  times  they  can  be  renewed.  So this type U.S government will take actions. Any  way  it  must  to  take  new  actions/plans  in  future , against  U.S  immigration  issues. Because  day  to  day  criminals, terrors, issue creators  are  growth  in  the  earth, so  I must  say  here  one line  to  all youths/ peoples  (who  want  to go/ live  long  period  in abroad)  please  follow  up  their  government  rules/ do  duties  of their  country until  your  visa  date  expired, afterwards  also  co – operate  with  reforms  against  immigrants  issues.  That’s all! Then only we can create new U.S i.e.  “Free from issue immigrants world”.

Views and Opinions expressed in this essay do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Shah Peerally Law Group PC and its affiliates.